John Austin and Jeremy Bentham were the first legal positivists who tried to provide a descriptive account of the law describing the law as it is. Austin explained the descriptive orientation of legal positivism by saying, „The existence of law is one thing; His merit and merit is another. Whether or not this is the case is a question; Whether or not it conforms to a supposed standard is another question.  For Austin and Bentham, a society is headed by a sovereign who has de facto authority. Thanks to the authority of the sovereign, laws emerge that are supported for Austin and Bentham by sanctions for non-compliance. Along with Hume, Bentham was an early and fervent supporter of the utilitarian concept and a passionate prison reformer, defender of democracy, and staunch atheist. Bentham`s views on law and jurisprudence were popularized by his pupil John Austin. Austin was the first holder of the chair of law at the new University of London in 1829. Austin`s utilitarian answer to the question „What is law?” was that law was „orders, aided by the threat of sanctions, from a ruler whom men are accustomed to obey.”  H. L. A. Hart criticized Austin and Bentham`s early legal positivism because the theory of command did not take into account the individual`s respect for the law.
Legal studies help legislators by providing accurate and unambiguous terminology. Expressions such as right, duty, possession, property, liability, negligence, etc. Salmond defines jurisprudence as „the science of law”. Keeton considers jurisprudence to be „the systematic study and arrangement of the general principles of law” . Karl Llewellyn said, „The judiciary is as big as the law – and bigger.”  An attempt to systematically inform jurisprudence from sociological discoveries developed as early as the early twentieth century, when sociology began to establish itself as an independent social science, particularly in the United States and continental Europe. In Germany, Austria and France, the work of „free law” theorists (e.g. Ernst Fuchs, Hermann Kantorowicz, Eugen Ehrlich and François Geny) encouraged the use of sociological discoveries in the development of legal theory. The most influential international advocacy of „sociological jurisprudence” took place in the United States, where Roscoe Pound, longtime dean of Harvard Law School, used the term in the first half of the twentieth century to characterize his philosophy of law. In the United States, many later authors followed Pound`s example or developed distinct approaches to sociological jurisprudence. In Australia, Julius Stone vigorously defended and developed Pound`s ideas. In the 1930s, there was a sharp split between American sociological jurists and legal realists. In the second half of the twentieth century, sociological jurisprudence declined as a movement in its own right, with jurisprudence being more influenced by analytic legal philosophy; But with the growing criticism of the dominant orientations of legal philosophy in the English-speaking countries of this century, it has aroused new interest.
At present, he is increasingly focusing on providing theoretical resources to lawyers to help them understand new types of regulation (e.g. different ways of developing transnational laws) and the increasingly important interrelationships between law and culture, particularly in multicultural Western societies.  In ancient China, Taoists, Confucians, and legalists all had competing theories of jurisprudence.  Hobbes was a social entrepreneur and believed that the law had the tacit consent of the people. He believed that society was formed from a state of nature to protect people from the state of war that would otherwise exist. In Leviathan, Hobbes argues that without an orderly society, life would be „solitary, poor, bad, brutal, and short.”  It is generally said that Hobbes` views on human nature were influenced by his time. The English Civil War and Cromwell`s dictatorship had taken place; and when Hobbes answered, he meant that the absolute authority of a monarch whose subjects obeyed the law was the basis of a civilized society. For American legal realists in the early twentieth century, legal realism sought to describe how judges decide cases. For legal realists like Jerome Frank, judges start with the facts they have and then move on to legal principles. Before legal realism, theories of jurisprudence reversed this method, where judges should start with legal principles and then examine the facts.
Aristotle moves from this unrestricted discussion of justice to a nuanced view of political justice, through which he means something close to the subject of modern jurisprudence. Of political justice, Aristotle argues that it is partly derived from nature and partly a matter of convention.  This can be understood as a statement similar to the views of modern natural law theorists. But it must also be remembered that Aristotle describes a view of morality, not a legal system, and so his remarks on nature are based on morality promulgated as law, not on the laws themselves. Jurisprudence forms the critical installations of its students. This allows them to identify errors and use accurate legal terminology and expressions. For example, when you see the question of possession, you have to find its answer through case law. Modern jurisprudence began in the 18th century and focused on the first principles of natural law, civil law and international law.  General jurisprudence can be divided into categories according to the type of question researchers seek to answer and the theories of jurisprudence or schools of thought on how best to answer these questions.
Contemporary philosophy of law, which deals with general jurisprudence, deals with problems within the legal and legal system, as well as problems of law as a social institution linked to the broader political and social context in which it exists.  1. „Case law is the scientific synthesis of the essential principles of law” says: (a) Holland (b) Pound (c) C.K. Allen (d) Ihring. 2. Which of the following authors has divided the case law into specific and general case law? (a) Austin (b) Bentham (c) Holland (d) Salmonde. 3. A comparative method of the study of law was introduced by (a) Savigny (b) Maine (c) Hart (d) Kelsen. 4.
Who said that „jurisprudence is the eye of the law”? (a) Maine b) Savigny c) Book d) Laski. 5. In the Dark Ages, natural law was reinterpreted by (a) Augustine (b) Thomas Acquinas (c) Paul (d) Ulpion. 6. Who proposed the concept of the basic standard? (a) Roscoe Pound (b) Hans Kelsen (c) John Austin (d) Hart. 7. Among the following jurists, whose legal theory has earned the name of „natural law with variable content”? (a) St. T. Acquinas (b) John Locke (c) R.